Adverse Event

Any adverse change in health or “side-effect” that occurs in a person participating in a clinical trial, from the time they consent to joining the trial until a pre-specified period of time after their treatment has been completed.


The quantity or fraction of the ingested dose that is absorbed by the body.

AEN-100 (zinc)

Adeona’s proprietary, once-daily, gastroretentive, sustained-release oral tablet formulation of zinc acetate.

Clinical Study/Trial

A research study that is conducted to find out if a treatment or procedure is safe and/or effective in humans.

Controlled Clinical Trial

A clinical study that compares patients receiving a specific treatment to patients receiving an alternate treatment for the condition of interest. The alternate treatment may be another active treatment, standard of care for the condition and/or a placebo (inactive) treatment.

Double-blinded Study/Trial

Both the participant and the researcher are unaware of who is receiving the active treatment or the placebo.

Effirma (flupirtine)

Proposed tradename of Adeona’s centrally-acting investigational oral drug for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome.

FDA – Food & Drug Administration

The United States government agency that ensures that medicines, medical devices, medical foods and radiation-emitting consumer products are safe and effective. Authorized by Congress to enforce the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and several other public health laws, the agency monitors the manufacture, import, transport, storage, and sale of $1 trillion worth of goods annually.


Medications designed to be retained in the upper gastrointestinal system.

GMP — Good Manufacturing Practice

Regulations that require that manufacturers, processors, and packagers of drugs, medical devices, some food, and blood take proactive steps to ensure that their products are consistently produced, pure, and stable. GMP regulations require a quality approach to manufacturing, enabling companies to minimize or eliminate instances of contamination, mix-ups, and errors.

GRAS – Generally Recognized As Safe

If the use of a substance in food is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by qualified experts, then that use is exempted from the premarket approval requirements that apply to food additives under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA).

IND — Investigational New Drug

An application submitted to the FDA for a new drug or biologic that, if allowed, will be used in a clinical trial.

Open-label Clinical Study/Trial

A trial in which both the treating physician and the patient know they are receiving the experimental treatment.

Phase I Clinical Trial

A Phase I trial represents an initial study in a small group of patients to primarily test for safety.

Phase II Clinical Trial

A Phase II trial represents a study in a larger number of patients to assess the safety and efficacy of a product.

Phase III Clinical Trial

Phase III trials are initiated to establish safety and efficacy in an expanded patient population and at multiple clinical trial sites and are generally larger than trials in earlier phases of development.


An inactive pill or liquid. Many studies compare an active drug to a placebo to determine whether any changes seen during the study can be attributed to the active drug.

Principal Investigator

This is the study director who is ultimately responsible for the conduct of the study.

Prospective Clinical Study/Trial

A clinical study/trial in which participants are identified and then followed throughout the study going forward in time.


A clinical study/trial’s plan — includes the schedule of tests, requirements for participation, procedures, and medications.

Randomized Study/Trial

Participants in a study are assigned by chance to either one or more of the active treatment group(s) or the placebo group.

reaZin™ (zinc cysteine)

Tradename of Adeona’s oral medical food product containing zinc and cysteine, available only by prescription, that is being developed for the dietary management of zinc deficiency associated with Alzheimer's disease.

Single-blinded Study/Trial

One party, either the participant or the researcher, does not know if the participant is taking the active treatment or the placebo.

Study/Trial Coordinator

Staff member who is often the primary contact for research participants and coordinates their care and evaluations throughout the study.

Trimesta (estriol)

Proposed tradename of Adeona’s investigational oral drug for the treatment of relapses in multiple sclerosis and cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

(oral zinc acetate lozenge)

Tradename of Adeona’s oral zinc acetate lozenge being developed to reduce the duration and symptoms of the common cold.